segunda-feira, 15 de fevereiro de 2016

Brazilian Indians in Toy Art - Ethnic Groups

Brazilian Indians in Toy Art - Ethnic Groups
There is a universe of cultures within Brazil, which in fear, boredom and / or prejudice, few dare to know, the universe is composed of almost one million people, approximately 305 ethnic groups speaking 274 different languages, they have their own worldview, religion, unique knowledge of botany, ecology and sustainability ...

To eliminate the 'boredom', I’ve adopted the Tupi-Pop profile of my blogs, I decided to approach each race through Toy Arts, and just like the hundreds of Pokemon, Naruto characters, etc., indigenous ethnic groups will be subject of easy understanding to the * Otakus the Tupi-Pop.

Toy Art of ethnic groups, Orishas, legends and other Brazilians by Luiz Pagano - the best way to learn is having fun without stigmatizing the individual (if you want to know more, please contact us at contato@blemya.com )
From the discovery of Brazil by the Portuguese in 1500, Europeans began to have a major contact with the Tupi-Guarani tribes who were spread across almost the entire Brazilian coast. The Tupi-Guarani called the indigenous people of different languages as Tapuia - which in their language meant "enemy." The word ‘Tapuia’ was incorporated by Europeans and they started to believe that there were only two major indigenous nations: the Tupi-Guarani and Tapuia.

The Tapuias considered by Europeans as more primitive, difficult to catechize, and to conquer, so they were hard fought and exterminated - many of the peoples and tribes that existed have disappeared so completely that don’t exist even a single direct record of their existence.

In the nineteenth century, the German scientist Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius traveled to a large part of Brazilian territory and proposed a division of Brazilian Indians according to a linguistic criterion. Based on this criterion, he created the ‘Gê’ group, which included tribes that spoke similar languages and who used to call themselves by utilizing the gê particle, meaning "father", "boss" or "ancestor". ' An alternative name, according to Martius itself, would 'cram' because in this group was also widely used to cran particle ("son", "Down") for the appointment of the tribes. Much of the ancient tribes tapuias was encompassed by the Gê group.

In the early twentieth century, anthropologists began to reject the name "Tapuia" and adopted the name "GES" for this other group of language families. In 1953, the Brazilian Association of Anthropology took the form "Ge" in lieu of "Gê". With the spelling reform, which advocated the use of "j" instead of "g" for the coming terms of Brazilian indigenous languages, the word "Gê" came to be spelled "JJE".

Because they have similarities in their origins is possible to classify the linguistic groups and linguistic trunks, the linguist Morris Swadesh has an important work of classification that besides the genetic lineage, took into account the method known as glottochronology, which is determined primarily from a basic vocabulary of a hundred or two common terms, which are the true cognates (words that demonstrate being derived from a single ancestral word). A rate of 81% of cognates indicate five centuries since the two languages are separated; 36% indicate approximately 2,500 years of separation; 12% some 5,000 years.

Unfortunately the native languages of indigenous Brazilian tribes are among the most endangered in the world - 300 years ago, living in the village of São Paulo de Piratininga was almost synonymous to speaking Indian language. Only 2 out of every 5 inhabitants of the city knew the Portuguese. So in 1698, the provincial governor, Artur de Sa e Meneses, begged Portugal to only send priests who knew "the general language of the Indians", because "these people can not be explained in another language"

For reasons like these, according to a classification made by the National Geographic Society and the Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages. The Indian languages started being replaced by Spanish and Portuguese in Brazil's border with Bolivia and Paraguay, in the Andes and the Chaco region, the researchers found. For example, less than 20 people speak Ofaié, and less than 50 are able to express in Guató.

Most countries were built on top of people destruction, Brazil is one of the few that still has an important chance to redeem identity and to learn from the remnant thus able to determine the classification of 20 ethnic groups, of which four the most important of them (Tupi, Ge Macro, Arawak and Carib) described below:


Tupi group Toy Art

1 - Tupi Group

The term "Tupi" has two meanings: one generic and one specific. The general sense of the term refers to the Indians who inhabited the Brazilian coast in the 16th century and spoke the language Tupi old. The specific meaning of the term refers to the Indians who inhabited the region the Brazilian coast including the current city of São Vicente, at the same time, were the first Indians to have contact with the Portuguese who arrived here.

The Tupi Group is divided into 10 families: Tupi-Guarani, Arikém, Aweti, Juruna, Mawé, Puroborá, Mundurukú, Ramarama and Tupari.


Macro-Ge group in Toy Art

2 - Macro-Ge Group

The languages of the Macro-Ge trunk bequeathed a few words to the Portuguese language, though not as eloquently as the languages of the Tupi. Generally, they are place names in southern Brazil originated in Caingangue language as Goioerê, Xanxerê, Erechim, Erebango Ere Campo, Goioxim, Brazil, Nonoai, etc.

Grupo Aruak em Toy Art

3 – Arwak Group

The Arawak languages, Arawaks, Aruak Arawak or form a family of Amerindian languages of South America and the Caribbean Sea. Arawak languages are spoken in much of the territory of the Americas to the south to Paraguay and northern countries of the north coast of South America, such as Suriname, Guyana and Venezuela.


According to linguist Aryon Rodrigues, this language, also known as Lokono, was spoken in some West Indian islands like Trinidad. When Europeans inciaram its colonization of the Caribbean, Arawak then divided and disputed the same place with the Carib, and went with one another that those had their first contact with the native population and their languages. As Karib, the Arawak name came to be used to designate the set of languages found within the continent and related to the Arawak language. Also according to this author, this set of languages was also called Maipure or Nu-Arawak and corresponds to what Carl Friedrich von Martius for more than a century called Guck or Coco.

Karib group in Toy Art

4 - Karib Group


The Carib languages, Caribas, Caraibas, Caribbean are an indigenous language family of Central America and South America. It is scattered throughout northern South America, from the mouth of the Amazon River to the Colombian Andes, but also appears in central Brazil. The Carib languages are relatively close together.

Aikanã, Arawá, Guaikurú and Iranxé groups in Toy Art

5 - Aikanã Group

African (also known as Aikanã, Massaca , Massaka, Huari, Corumbiará, Kasupá, Munde, Tubarão, Winzankyi) is a Brazilian indigenous people. They speak the language Aicanã. The Aikanã live in the state of Rondônia, in the Guaporé River basin. Its three villages are part of the Indigenous Land Tubarão Latundê, located 100 kilometers from the border with Bolivia and 180 kilometers from the nearest city, Vilhena.

6 - Group Arauá

The Arawá, (also known as Arauá, Deni, Jarawara, Kanamanti, Kulina, Paumari, Jamamandi and Zuruahá) are an indigenous group that inhabits the southwestern Brazilian state of Amazonas, specifically the "Deni Indigenous Land", located in the municipalities Itamarati and Tapauá.

The first contacts with the white man Arawá probably happened in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century.

The Arawá are among the indigenous groups of the region rivers Juruá and Purus which, in the 1940s, have suffered the impact of the second rubber boom, which attracted thousands of migrants. Through these came diseases, violent territorial disputes and exploitation of indigenous labor. Since then, Arawá had to wait decades to have their guaranteed territorial rights, and need to start a self-demarcation of the land campaign, with the support of some NGOs, to then get the official demarcation, which was only completed in August 2003.

7 - Guaikurú Group

The term refers Guaicurus indigenous groups whose languages belong to Guaicuru linguistic family. They were notorious for being a warrior tribe that used horses for hunting and attacks. Migrated to Brazil, in the region of Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás, fleeing from colonization in the northern region of Paraguay.

8 - Group Iranxé


The Irantxe (are also known as Iranxe), are located in Mato Grosso-MT and according to data from FUNASA-2010 has a population of 379 inhabitants. Manoki, as they call themselves, are best known as Irantxe, whose language has no similarity with other linguistics families. His story, however, is not very different from most of the Indians in Brazil, were virtually decimated as a result of massacres and diseases from contact with whites. In the mid-twentieth century, most of the survivors saw no alternative but to live in a Jesuit mission, responsible for the profound socio-cultural disintegration of the group.

Jabuti, Kanoê, Katukina and Kwazá groups in Toy Art

9 - Jabuti Group

The Jabutis (they are also known as Djeoromitxí and Arikapu) are an indigenous group that inhabits the southern Brazilian state of Rondônia, the more precisely Rio Branco Indigenous Areas, Guaporé River and Indigenous Land Jabuti. In the past the tribe was very threatened by the presence of garimpeiros in its original area, a fact partly resolved by the demarcation of their lands.

Most jabuti language speakers also speak Portuguese and there are others who still know how to communicate through other indigenous languages.

10 - Kanoê Group

The Kanoê (brasílic ethnonym) or canoes are an indigenous group that inhabits the southern Brazilian state of Rondonia, specifically the Rio Branco Indigenous Lands and Rio Guaporé.

Massacre

In 1985, the canoes farmers have suffered attacks in Corumbiará, municipality that gives name to the documentary Franco-Brazilian Vincent Carelli. It is not known how many indigenous people (among them the Akuntsu ethnicity) were killed, but it is speculated that it was using a bulldozer, it serves to clear large areas.

11 - Katukina Group

Catuquinas or Katukina is a denominated a name to at least three indigenous groups:

The first, the Katukina language family, called Katukina Rio Biá, located on the river Jutaí region in southwestern Amazonas state, on indigenous lands Paumari the Cuniuá, Paumari Lake Paricá, Rio Biá and Tapauá.

Katukina are also called two groups of linguistic pano family, located in the state of Acre. But neither of these two pano groups recognize the term "Katukina" as a self. One of them, located on the banks of the Envira river, near the town of Feijó, calls himself-Shanenawa and would be part of a clan Yawanawá people.

"Since time immemorial, the Yawanawá, the people of the jawbone, occupy the headwaters of the Gregório River, an affluent of the Juruá, geographically belonging to the municipality of Tarauacá, Acre. Its current population is 636 people and belongs to the linguistic branch Pano. The families are distributed in communities Nova Esperança, Mutum, Escondido, Tiburcio and Matrinxã. the communities are formed by Yawanawá families, Arara, Kãmãnawa (people of the jaguar), Iskunawa (Japó people), Ushunawa (people of color white), Shanenawa ( people blue bird), Rununawa (the snake people) and Kaxinawá (the bat people). "

But the other group, called Katukina-Pano, inhabitant of villages located on the banks of Campinas and Gregório rivers, does not recognize any meaning in the name "Katukina" in their language, but accepts the name. They tell their members that she was "given by the government." However, in recent years, young indigenous leaders have encouraged the consolidation of the designation of Noke Kuin, Noke Noke Kui or Koi (in Portuguese, "real people") for the group. Internally, six other self-denominations are used which refer to the six clans in which the group is divided. It was observed that these names are almost identical to the names of some clans Marubo people, with which Katukina-called Pano present several other linguistic and cultural similarities.

12 - Kwazá Group


The Kwazá (also Coaia or Koaia ) are an Amerindian people inhabiting the southern Brazilian state of Rondônia, the region where they lived since time immemorial. After opening the BR-364 road, in the 1960s, farmers drove them out of fertile land where they lived and in 2008 formed a society of only 40 individuals, living in the Indigenous Land Tubarão Latundê in the municipality of Chupinguaia, along with Aikanã and Latundê. Most of them are mixed with Aikanã. There's another mixed family Kwazá and Aikanã living in Indigenous Kwazá the San Pedro River. They speak a language isolate that is threatened with extinction.

Maku, Mura, Nambikwara and Pano groups Toy Art

13 - Maku Group

The Macus is a Brazilian indigenous group divided in subgroups called Daw, Hupda, Iuhupde and Nadebe.

The term, however, may refer to an indigenous group inhabiting the Brazilian state of Roraima and that would have merged with iecuanas the twentieth century. According to Jorge Pozzobon (1955-2001) is common in the region the distinction between so-called "river Indians", speaks of Tukano and Arawak, and the "kill the Indian," says Maku. The approximately three thousand Maku (1999) are distributed in an area between Brazil and Colombia in an area of approximately 20 million hectares, which are dispersed by patches of forest, limited the north by the river Guaviare (Colombian tributary of the Orinoco River) north by the Negro river, south by the river Japura and the southeast by the river Uneiuxi (Brazilian affluent of Negro).

14 - Mura Group

The Mura is a Brazilian indigenous group that inhabits the center and the east of Amazonas state, specifically in indigenous areas Boa Vista, Capybara, Cuia, Cunha, Hawk, Guapenu, Itaitinga, Lake Aiapoá, Murutinga Christmas / Happiness, Onça, Padre, Paracuhuba, Recreation / San Felix, San Pedro, Tracajá, Trench, Méria, Miratu, Tabocal and Pantaleão.

15 - Nambikwara Group
The Nambikwara, also called Anunsu, Anunzê, Nambikwara, Nambikuára, Nambikwara, Nhambikuara or Nhambiquara are a Brazilian indigenous people. They are located in western Mato Grosso and Rondônia.

In 1999 amounted to 1145 individuals. Their customs are hunting and gathering and rarely had contact with non-Indians until 1965, when non-Indians began to invade their land for mining and illegal logging.

Its subgroups are Nambiquara do Campo (Mato Grosso and Rondonia), North Nambikwara (Mato Grosso and Rondonia), the Nambikwara Sararé (Mato Grosso) and Southern Nambikwara (Mato Grosso).

16 - Group Pano

Pano are indigenous groups whose languages belong to the Pano linguistic family. In the past, they were called bearded.

According to some linguists, the term pejorative pano: comes from panobu, which would mean "the willows", not being a self-designation of these people, but rather, a heteronym given by people belonging to other language families.

People belonging to the Pano family are located in the far west of the Brazilian Amazon and in the region corresponding to the Andean piedmont, Peru.


All people whose names are terminated by -nawa suffix -náua or -nauá belong to this group: Kaxinawá, Yawanawá, Shawanawá (or Shawadawã) Shanenawá, Jaminawa, among others. Also belong to this group and the Marubo Corubo (Javari Valley) and Shipibo (Peru Juruá-Ucaially). The Katukina Acre also speak a Pano language family (not to be confused with the Katukina of Amazonas). Apparently -náua suffix or -nawa means "people" or "people", plus a given name indicates that this people clan belongs. Eg Shanenaua (people of Blue Bird), Yawanawá (jawbone people), etc. People Pano or nawa share not only linguistic similarities but also in traditional songs, in ritual practices in traditional stories and body painting, and other aspects of their culture.

Trumai, Tikuna, Txapakura and Yanomami groups in Toy Art

17 - Trumai Group

The Trumai an isolated language and really committed, was the last group to arrive at the Xingu. There are now only 30 speakers and children no longer learn the language, preferring to speak Portuguese, although some of them also speak other languages Xingu, as Kamayará the Aweti or Suyá.

18 - Tikuna Group

The Tikuna (Tikuna, Tucuna or Maguta) is an Amerindian people who live currently the border between Peru and Brazil and the Amazonian Trapezium, in Colombia. Form a society of more than 50 000 individuals, split between Brazil (36,000), Colombia (eight thousand) and Peru (seven thousand), being the most numerous indigenous people of the Brazilian Amazon.

19 - Group Txapakura

The Txapakura, came from regions basins, streams, affluent and headwater streams located in southwestern Amazonia. Occupied regions of the Lage river basins and river basins of Ouro Preto, the igarapé of the Grotto, the stream Santo André and the stream Rio Negro, the right bank affluent of Mamore where it came from one of their denominations.

However, until the early twentieth century they remained isolated, perhaps because they lived in hard to reach areas or little economic interest. The Waris, the Txapakuras group has been mentioned for the first time in history by Colonel Ricardo Franco in 1798, found the riverbanks Pacaás Novos.

This situation has to change with the development of the rubber vulcanization process, which took place in the mid nineteenth century, which led to the search for this raw material in the forests, hitherto little explored.

20 - Yanomami Group

The Ianomâmis, Yanomami Yanoama Yanomami Yanomami or are hunters and farmers Indians who inhabit Brazil and Venezuela. It consists of four subgroups: Yanomae, Yanomami Sanima and Ninam. Each group speaks its own language: together they make up the Yanomami language family. The Yanomami tribe is the seventh largest Brazilian Indian tribe, with 15,000 people distributed in 255 villages related to each other to a greater or lesser degree. Northwest of Roraima, are situated 197 villages totaling 9506 people, and the north of the Amazon, are situated 58 villages totaling 6510 people.

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·      Otaku ( ?) Is a term used in Japan and other countries to describe fans of anime and manga. However, in Japan, the term can be used to describe a fan of anything in a large excess.

·      The word otaku in Japanese originally a respectful treatment in the second person ( ? Lit. his home), or "your house", a kind of pronoun most archaic Nipponese. This reference arose from the combination of the economic prosperity of Japan after the war, the intense relationship between consumption and media technologies and the appeal of the visual references of manga (comics) and anime (animation) .Otaku became assigned to people who spent a lot of time at home, consuming such a culture.


·      The humorist and columnist Akio Nakamori noted that the word was widely used among anime fans and popularized around 1989, when used in one of his books.

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